QUIZ: POSITION AND TOPIC SENTENCE OF PARAGRAPHS
Posted by dadangiskandar on October 9, 2009
QUIZ FOR IM TELKOM TAKING ON GENERAL AND BUSINESS ENGLISH
I. POSITION OF THE TOPIC SENTENCES
The topic sentence may be the first or last sentence in a paragraph. The topic may also be the first and last sentence on the paragraph – “sandwich style.” A “sandwich style” paragraph is especially helpful to you reader if the paragraph is very long. The second topic sentence in the “sandwich style” paragraph also serves as a concluding sentence.
Study the following three paragraphs. Notice the different position for the topic sentence in each. The topic sentences are underlined.
Model 2 : position of topic sentences
Hurricanes, which are also called cyclones, exert tremendous power. These violent storms are often a hundred miles in diameter, and their winds can reach velocities* of seventy-five miles per hour or more. Furthermore, the strong winds and heavy rainfall that accompany them can completely destroy a small town in a couple of hours. The energy that is released by a hurricane in one day exceeds the total energy consumed by human kind throughout the world in one year.
Famous Schooll “Failures”
Albert Einstein, one of the world’s geniuses, failed his university entrance examination on his first attempt. William Faulkner, one of America note writers, never finished college because he could not pass his English courses. Sir William Churchill, who is considered one of the masters of English language, had to have special tutoring in English during elementary school. These examples show that failure in school does not always predict failure in life.
Synonym words, that have the same basic meaning, do not always have the same emotional meaning. For example the words “stingy” and “frugal” both mean” careful with money. “however, to call a person stingy is an insult, while the word frugal has a much more positive connotation*. Similarly, a person wants to be slender but not skinny, and aggressive, but not pushy. Therefore, you should be careful in choosing words because many so-called synonyms are not really synonymous at all.
II. Recognizing the Topic Sentence______________________________________
Remember, the topic sentence indicates the main idea of a paragraph and is the most general statement in the paragraph.
STEP 1 Decide which of the following sentences in the topic sentence of the paragraph.
STEP 2 Write TS on the line next to that sentence.
STEP 3 Decide what order the supporting sentences should be in and number them 1,2,3 and 4.
_________a. Next, add anti freeze to your windshield washer fluid; otherwise, the fluid will freeze and possibly break the container.
________ b. First, put on snow tires if you plan to dtive on snowy, icy roads very often.
_________c. Driving in winter, especially on snowy, icy roads, can be less trouble some if you take a few simple precautions*.
_________d. Finally, it is also a good idea to carry tire chains, a can of spray to unfreeze door locks and a windshield scraper in your car when driving in winter weather.
_________e. Second, check the amount of antifreeze in your radiator and add more if necessary.
_________a. Furthermore, researchers are continuing to work on the development of an efficient, electrically powered automobile.
________ b. Researchers in the automobile industry are experimenting with different types of engines and fuels as alternative to the conventional gasoline engines.
_________c. One new type of engine, which burns diesel oil instead of gasoline, has been available for several years.
_________d. Finally, several automobile manufactures are experimenting with methanol, which is a mixture of gasoline and methyl alcohol, as an automobile fuel.
_________e. A second type is the gas turbine engine, which can use fuels made from gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene, other petroleum distillates*, or methanol.
_________a. Later on, people began to write on pieces of leather, which were rolled into scrolls.
________ b. In the earliest times, people carved or painted messages on rocks.
_________c. In the middle Ages, heavy paper called parchment was used for writing; books were laboratoriously copied by hand.
_________d. With the invention of the printing press in the middle of the fifteenth century, the modern printing industry was born.
_________e. Some form of written communication has been used throughout the centuries.
_________a. If there had been a big storm on the day of a baby’s birth, the baby might have been named thunder cloud.
________ b. American Indian names are very descriptive, for Indian were usually named for physical attribute, for an occurrence in nature, or for animal.
_________c. Grey Eagle, red dog, Big bear, and spotted wolf are example of Indians named after animals.
_________d. Indians with distinctive physical characteristics might be given such names as big foot or crooked leg.
_________a. For one thing, Individual I.Q. scores vary considerably.
________ b. Many experts also question whether I.Q. scores are related to intelligence.
_________c. Furthermore, most psychologists agree that intelligence test are biased* in favor of middle-class children.
_________d. The validity* of standardized intelligence test is being seriously questioned by educators and physiologists.
_________e. In fact, motivation seems to be just as important as intelligence in determining a person’s ability to learn.