Dadang Iskandar

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Archive for July, 2009

reading for mbti and accounting

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 27, 2009

READING COMPREHENSION

 

 

STRATEGIES FOR THE READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

 

  1. 1.       Skim the reading passage to determine the main idea and the overall organization of ideas in the passage. You do not need to understand every detail in each passage to answer the questions correctly. It is therefore a waste of time to read the passage with intent of understanding every single detail before you try to answer the question
  2. 2.       Look ahead at the questions to determine what types of questions you must answer.   Each type of question is answered in a different way.
  3. 3.       Find the section of the passage that deals with each question.     The question-type tells you exactly where to look in the passage to find correct answers.
  • For main idea questions, look at the first line of each paragraph.
  • For directly and indirectly answered detail questions, choose a key word in the question, and skim for that key word (or a related idea) in order in the passage.
  • For vocabulary questions, the question will tell you where the word is located in the passage
    • For where questions, the answers are found anywhere in passage.
  1. 4.       Read the part of the passage that contains the answer carefully.    The answer will probably be in the same sentence (or one sentence before or after) the key word or idea
  2. 5.       Choose the best answer to each question from the four answer choices listed in your test book. You can choose the best answer according to what is given in the appropriate section of the passage, eliminate definitely wrong answers, and mark your best guess on the answer sheet

 

 The following chart outlines the key information that you should remember about main idea question.

 

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS

HOW TO IDENTIFYTHEQUESTION
  • What is the topic of the passage?
    • What is the subject of the passage?
    • What is the main idea of the passage?
    • What is the author’s main point in the passage?
    • With what is the author primarily concerned?
    • Which of the following would be the best title?
WHERE TO FINDTHE ANSWER The answer to this type of question can generally be determined by looking at the first sentence of each paragraph.
HOW TO ANSWERTHE QUESTION
  1. Read the first line of each paragraph.
  2. Look for a common theme or idea in the first lines.
  3. Pass your eyes quickly over the rest of the passage to     check that you really have found the topic sentence(s).
  4. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices.

 EXERCISES

 PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2)

             Most of the ice on the Earth, close to 90 percent of it, is covering the surface of the continent Antarctica. It does not snow very much in Antarctica, but whatever snow does fall remains and grows deeper and deeper. In some areas of Antarctica, the ice has perhaps been around for as much as a million years and now is more than two miles deep.

 

1. The main idea of the passage is that(A)   the Earth is a cold planet(B)   most of the Earth’s ice is found in Antarctica(C)   it snows more in Antarctica than in any other place on Earth

(D)   Antarctica is only two miles wide but is 90 percent ice

  1. The best title for the passage is

(A)   Snowfall in Antarctica

(B)   The Icy Earth

(C)   The Cold, Cold Snow

(D)   The Causes of Antarctica’s Ice Pack

 

 

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4)

 

   Line

(5)

       The extremely hot and humid weather that occurs in the United States in July and August is commonly called the “dogs days” of summer. This name comes from the star Sirius, which is known as the Dog Star. Sirius is the brightest visible star, and in the hot summer months it rises in the east at approximately the same time as the Sun. As ancient people   saw this star rising with the Sun when the weather was at its hottest, they believed that Sirius was the cause of the additional heat; they believed that this bright star added its heat to the heat of the Sun, and these two together made summer weather so unbearably hot.  

           

3.       The topic of this passage is(A) how dogs like to play during the summer(B) the causes of hot and humid weather(C) why the hot summer days are known as the “dogs days”

(D) the days that dogs prefer

4. The main idea of this passage is that(A) the name for the summer days came from Sirius, the Dog   Star(B) dogs generally prefer hot summer days(C) the hottest days occur in the summer because of the movements of the Sun and stars

(D) Sirius rises at almost the same time as the Sun during the summer months

 PASSAGE THREE (Questions 5-6)

  

   Line

(5)

 

 

 

 

(10)

       The term “primitive art” has been used in a variety of ways to describe works and     styles of art. One way that this term has been used is to describe the early period within      the development of a certain style of art. Another way that this term has been used is to describe artists who have received little professional training and who demonstrate a nontraditional naiveté in their work.       A wonderful example of this second type of primitive artist is Grandma Moses, who    spent all her life living on a farm and working at tasks normally associated with farm life.She did not begin painting until she reached the age of seventy-six, when she switched to painting from embroidery because the arthritis in her hands made embroidery too   difficult. Totally without formal education in art, she began creating panoramic images of everyday life on the farm that have achieved international fame

 

5. The subject of this passage is(A)   an example of one of the types of primitive art(B)   Grandma Moses’s life on the farm(C)   how primitive art differs from formal art

(D)   Grandma Moses’s primitive life-style

6.   Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?(A)   Grandma Moses spent her life on a farm(B)   Art critics cannot come to any agreement on a definition of primitive art.(C)   Grandma Moses is one type of primitive artist because of her lack of formal training.

(D)   Many artists receive little professional training.

Posted in Academic | 2 Comments »

Reading

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 15, 2009

Reading Comprehension

 

(1)

 

 

 

(5)

A new hearing device is now available for some hearing-impaired people. This device uses a magnet to hold the detachable sound-processing portion in place. Like other aids, it converts sound into vibrations, but it is unique in that it can transmit the vibrations directly to the magnet, and then to the inner ear, producing a clearer sound. The new device will not help all hearing-impaired people, only those with a hearing loss caused by infection or other problem in the middle ear. It will probably help no more than 20 percent of all people with hearing problems. Those people, however, who often have persistent ear infections should find relief and restored hearing with the new device.

 

1. What is the author’s main purpose?

(A)   to describe a new cure for ear infections

(B)   to inform medical personnel of a new device

(C)   to urge doctors to use the new device

(D)   to explain the use of the magnet

 

2. It can be inferred from the passage that

(A)   this use of magnets is new

(B)   infections are in the inner ear

(C)   magnets can be dangerous for 80 percent of the people

(D)   the new device is smaller than old ones

 

3.   According to the passage, what does the device NOT do?

(A)   transmit sound to the inner ear

(B)   help all hearing-impaired people

(C)   produce clear sound

(D)   change sound into vibrations

 

PASSAGE FIVE (Questions 10-13)

 

(1)

 

 

 

(5)

After two decades of growing student enrollments and economic prosperity, business schools in the Unites States have started to face harder times. Only Harvard’s MBA School showed a substantial increase in enrollment in the 1993 school year. Both Princeton and Stanford have seen decrease in their enrollments. Since 1990, the number of people receiving Masters in Business Administration (MBA) degrees, has dropped about 3 percent to 75,000, and the trend of lower enrollment rates is expected to continue.

There are two factors causing this decrease in students seeking an MBA degree. The first one is that many graduates of four-year colleges are finding that an MBA degree is not a guarantee for a plush job on Wall Street, or in other financial districts of major American cities. Many of the entry-level management jobs are going to students graduating with Master of Arts degrees in English and the humanities as well as those holding MMBA degrees. Students have asked the questions, “Is an MBA degree really what I need to be best prepared for getting a good job?” The second major factor has been the cutting of American payrolls and the lower number of entry-level jobs being offered. Business needs are changing, and MBA schools are struggling to meet the new demands.

 

 

4. What is the main focus of this passage?

(A)   Jobs on Wall Street   

(B)   Types of graduate degrees

(C) Changes in enrollment for MBA schools

(D) How schools are changing to reflect the economy

 

5. Which of the following university’s business schools has not shown a decrease in enrollment?

(A)   Princeton

(B)   Harvard

(C)   Stanford

(D)   Yale

 

6. Which of the following descriptions most likely applies to Wall Street?

(A)   A center for international affairs

(B)   A major financial center

(C)   A shopping district

(D)   A neighborhood in New York

 

7. According to the passage, what are two causes of declining business school enrollments?

(A)   Lack of necessity for an MBA and an economic recession

(B)   Low salary and foreign competition

(C)   Fewer MBA schools and fewer entry-level jobs

 (D)  Declining population and economic prosperity

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Tenses

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 15, 2009

TENSES

 

 

TENSES

 

TIME

 

PAST

 

PRESENT

 

FUTURE

 

SIMPLE

   

DID

 

DO; DOES

 

WILL

 

CONTINUOUS

   

WAS; WERE

 

IS; AM’ ARE

 

WILL BE

 

PERFECT

   

HAD

 

HAS; HAVE

 

WILL HAVE

 

PERFECT CONTINUOUS

   

HAD BEEN *)

 

HAS BEEN; HAVE BEEN

 

WILL HAVE

 BEEN *)

 

 

 

TO UNDERSTAND THE TENSES, YOU MUST WRITE AND PRACTICE THE PATTERN AS FOLLOWS:

FOR EXAMPLE: PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

+   Affirmative: The sun rises in the East.

–          Negative: The sun does not rise in the East.

?  Yes/ No question: Does the sun rise in the East?

Wh questions: What, when, Where, Who, Why, How, etc.

 

Exercises:

 

  1. Mr. Jonathan always ………………… (come) to work early on Monday.
  2. My sister still ………………. (make) some mistakes in pronunciation.
  3. Hendry always ………………….. (do) his weekly report on Monday afternoon.
  4. Mr. David’s secretary always ………….. (type) a lot of letters in the office.
  5. The man ……………….. (want) to withdraw some money from his account.
  6. He can’t come to the phone. He …………. (have) a bath.
  7. Father …………………… (shave) himself at the moment.
  8. We (go) to the movie every Saturday. This week we ………………… (go) on Sunday.
  9. Jane …………. (live) with her aunt in London where she …………… (study) English at present.
  10. Be quiet! Can’t you see I …………………. (speak) on the phone?

Posted in Academic | 1 Comment »

Oral Test Phase 1

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 13, 2009

  1. The study of new diseases has engaged many researchers since the last decade.

 2.  Hot springs are formed when water that has passed near recently formed hot igneous rocks emerges not far below the surface.

 3. In 1750 B.C. Hammurabi wrote the most famous collection of early laws.

 

4. In 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was signed, the United States became a new country.

 5. Like many other men who have run for president, Benjamin Horizon was first a practicing lawyer.

6. Neither plants nor animals can survive without oxygen.

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type of sentences

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 13, 2009

types of sentences:

simple sentence

compound sentences

complex sentences

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passive voice quiz

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 13, 2009

QUIZ PASSIVE VOICE

NAME: _____________________       NPM: ______________________

CODE: A

CODE B

Change the active to the passive.

 

  1. Shakespeare wrote that play.
  2. Alex is preparing that report.
  3. The teacher is going to explain the lesson.
  4. Two horses were pulling the farmer’s wagon.
  5. By this time tomorrow, the president will have made the announcement.
  6. Alice didn’t make that pie. Did Mr. French make it?
  7. Mrs. Andrews hasn’t signed those papers yet. Has Mr. Andrew signed them yet?

 

Change the active to the passive.

 

  1. Bill will invite Ann to the party.
  2. Waitresses and waiters serve customers.
  3. Shirley has suggested a new idea.
  4. Kathy had returned the book to the library.
  5. I didn’t write that note. Jim wrote it.
  6. Does Prof. Jackson teach that course? I know that Prof. Adams doesn’t teach it.
  7. Is Mr. Brown painting your house?
  8. His tricks won’t fool me.

 

Change the active to passive if possible!

 

  1. A strange thing happened yesterday.
  2. My cat died.
  3. Dr. Ikeda developed that theory.
  4. The assistant manager interviewed me.
  5. It rained hard yesterday.
  6. Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago.

 

  1. The children seemed happy when they went to the zoo.
  2. The solution to my problem appeared to me in a dream.

 

Change the active to passive if possible!

 

  1. Jackie scored the winning goal.
  2. I agree with Dr. Ikeda’s theory.
  3. Timmy dropped the cup.
  4. The cup fell to the floor.
  5. A hurricane destroyed the small fishing village.
  6. A large vase stands in the corner of our front hallway.
  7. After class, one of the students always erases the chalkboard.

 

Change passive into Active.

 

  1. My sweater was made in England.
  2. Language skills are taught in every school in the country.
  3. The World Cup soccer games are being televised all over the world.
  4. The Washington Monument is visited by hundreds of people every day.

 

  1. Parchment, another writing material that was widely used in ancient times, was made from the skins of animals such as sheep and goats. After the hair had been removed, the skins were stretched and rubbed smooth.

 

Change passive into Active.

 

  1. The new highway will be completed sometime next month.
  2. Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony was performed at the concert last night.
  3. This composition was written by Ali. That one was written by Yoko.
  4. The chief writing material of ancient times was papyrus. It was used in Egypt, Greece, and other Mediterranean lands.
  5. Paper, the main writing material today, was invented by the Chinese. 

 

 

Posted in Academic | 4 Comments »

conditional – Karina

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 13, 2009

Conditional Sentences / If-Clauses Type I, II and III

Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.

Conditional Sentence Type 1

Conditional 1

Often called the “real” conditional because it is used for real – or possible – situations. These situations take place if a certain condition is met.

NOTE

In the conditional 1 we often use unless which means ‘if … not’. In other words, ‘…unless he hurries up.’ could also be written, ‘…if he doesn’t hurry up.’.

If it rains, we will stay at home.
He will arrive late unless he hurries up.
Peter will buy a new car, if he gets his raise.

Conditional 1 is formed by the use of the present simple in the if clause followed by a comma will verb (base form) in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

If he finishes on time, we will go to the movies.
OR
We will go to the movies if he finishes on time.

→ It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.

Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

 

 

 

Conditional Sentence Type 2

Conditional 2

Often called the “unreal” conditional because it is used for unreal – impossible or improbable – situations. This conditional provides an imaginary result for a given situation.

NOTE

The verb ‘to be’, when used in the 2nd conditional, is always conjugated as ‘were’.

If he studied more, he would pass the exam.
I would lower taxes if I were the President.
They would buy a new house if they had more money.

Conditional 2 is formed by the use of the past simple in the if clause followed by a comma would verb (base form) in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

If they had more money, they would buy a new house.
OR
They would buy a new house if they had more money.

→ It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.

Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

Conditional Sentence Type 3

Conditional 3

Often referred to as the “past” conditional because it concerns only past situations with hypothetical results. Used to express a hypothetical result to a past given situation.

If he had known that, he would have decided differently.
Jane would have found a new job if she had stayed in Boston.

Conditional 3 is formed by the use of the past perfect in the if clause followed by a comma would have past participle in the result clause. You can also put the result clause first without using a comma between the clauses.

If Alice had won the competition, life would have changed OR Life would have changed if Alice had won the competition.

→ It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.

Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

 

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

Reported speech is used to express what others have said. It is also useful when you are writing a paper at college level. In this case, it involves paraphrasing and summarizing what different authors have said.

In spoken discourse there are certain rules to follow. First of all, to make sentences in reported speech you need verbs like say or tell.

On the other hand the tense used to express and idea is also an important factor. Take into consideration the following chart:

Direct Speech Reported Speech
  • Present Tense
  • Future with “Going to”
  • Present Perfect
  • Sentences with “Can”
  • Future with “Will”  
  • Present Progressive
  • Simple Past Tense
  • Past with “Going to”
  • Past Perfect
  • Sentences with “Could”
  • Sentences with “Would”
  • Past Progressive

Look at the following examples:

Direct Speech Reported Speech
  • Julia:”I live in my own apartment”.
  • Nick:”I am going to visit my parents next weekend”.
  • Tom:”I have studied Italian for a year”.
  • Linda and John: “We can’t come to the party next week”.
  • Terry: “I’ll write as soon as I get there”.
  • Andrew:”I’m learning to cook Chinese food”.
  • She said that she lived in her own apartment
  • He said he was going to visit his parents next weekend.
  • Tom said he had studied Italina for a year.
  • They said they couldn’t come to the party next week.
  • She said that she would write as soon as he got there.
  • He said he was learning to cook Chinese food.

If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.

Statements

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)

Type

Example

direct speech “I speak English.”
reported speech
(no backshift)
He says that he speaks English.
reported speech
(backshift)
He said that he spoke English.

Questions

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)

Also note that you have to:

  • transform the question into an indirect question
  • use the interrogative or if / whether

Type

Example

with interrogative direct speech “Why don’t you speak English?”
reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
without interrogative direct speech “Do you speak English?”
reported speech He asked me whether / if I spoke English.

Requests

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions

Type

Example

direct speech “Carol, speak English.“
reported speech He told Carol to speak English.

Posted in Academic | 1 Comment »

day one compressed semester

Posted by dadangiskandar on July 9, 2009

STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION

Sentence Completion

You must choose the word or phrase that correctly completes the sentence.

1. Subject or Noun Phrase
A single subject or a short noun phrase is the testing point in this category. The noun might be the main subject of the sentence, a part of a clause, or an appositive (a phrase that names the noun in another way). This category also includes the words it and there when they are nonreferential subjects.)

EXAMPLE:
__________new diseases has engaged many researchers since the last decade.

(A) By studying
(B) The study of
(C) An important study
(D) Now that the study

2. Word Order
In this category the answer choices contain all or almost all of the right words, but three of the answers give the words in the wrong order.

EXAMPLE:
Hot springs are formed when water that has passed near recently formed hot igneous rocks emerges ___________

(A) not far below the surface
(B) the surface not far below
(C) below the not far surface
(D) not far the surface below

3. Subject + Verb
Both the subject and the verb are in the answer choices. The subject and verb might be the main subject and verb of the sentence, or they might be in a subordinate clause. Sometimes the verb and subject are reversed for emphasis. (See lesson 15 for examples of this.)

EXAMPLE:
In 1750 B.C. ___________the most famous collection of early laws.

(A) then Hammurabi wrote
(B) Hammurabi wrote
(C) Hammurabi’s wrote
(D) Hammurabi, who wrote

4. Verb or Verb Phrase
The focus is on the verb. The specific testing point might be verb tense, verb agreement, or passive voice. You often have to decide whether the sentence needs a single verb or part of a clause.

EXAMPLE:
In 1776, when the Declaration of Independence _________, the United States became a new country.

(A) signed
(B) that signed
(C) was signed
(D) that is signed

5. Adjective/Adjective Phrase/Adjective Clause
The answer is either a single adjective or an adjective that is part of a clause or phrase. This category includes relative pronouns, relative clauses, and adjective participles. The answer often answers the question what kind of?

EXAMPLE:
Like many other men ___________ president, Benjamin Horrison was first a practicing lawyer.

(A) who they run for
(B) they run for
(C) who have run for
(D) run for

6. Conjunction
This category includes conjunctions such as and, both, either, or, neither, nor, but, and for. It also includes other connective words, such as because, in order to, so that, and however.

EXAMPLE:
______________nor animals can survive without oxygen.

(A) Plants can neither
(B) Neither can plants
(C) Plants, neither
(D) Neither plants

7. Parallel Construction
Words are given in a series. They must all be the same part of speech. Often, a comma separates the words or phrases.

EXAMPLE:
Sleeping, resting, __________ are the best ways to care for a cold.

(A) and that drinking fluids
(B) and drinking fluids
(C) which drank fluids
(D) and one drinks fluids

8. Adverb/Adverbial Phrase/Adverbial Clause
The answer is either a single adverb or an adverb that is part of a phrase or clause. This category also includes relative adverbs and adverbial participles. The words often answer the question how, when, where, or why.

EXAMPLES:
A ray swims rapidly ___________broad wing like appendages.

(A) by flapping its
(B) its flapping
(C) of the flapping
(D) the flap

____________very hungry, he bought a hamburger.

(A) Feeling
(B) Feel
(C) He felt
(D) To feel

9. Comparison

EXAMPLE:
The greater ______________increase in population, the harder it is for people to find adequate housing.

(A) of
(B) is the
(C) the
(D) is of the

10. Infinitive/Gerund
The main testing point is between an infinitive (a verb phrase beginning with the word to) and a gerund (a verb used as a noun, ending in –ing)

EXAMPLE:
Impressionist artists tended ___________ imagination and light more important than faithful reproduction of objects.

(A) considering
(B) be consider
(C) consider to
(D) to consider

11. Preposition/Prepositional Phrase
The answer is either a single preposition or a preposition in a phrase. You must choose the correct form of the preposition or the correct form of the noun following the preposition.

EXAMPLE:
Excessive absenteeism results ___________problems for the schools.
(A) in
(B) with
(C) for
(D) to

12. Superlative

EXAMPLE:
Of all the national parks in the United States, Yellowstone is _________visited.

(A) one of the most
(B) most
(C) one most
(D) the most one

13. Negative Words
The main testing point is often the difference among no, not, none, nothing, or nobody.

EXAMPLE:
____________two fingerprints are identical.

(A) Nor
(B) No
(C) None
(D) Not

14. Conditional
The conditional might begin with the word if or a phrase like ………had it not been for.

EXAMPLE:
_________the ozone layer were destroyed, most living things would disappear from the Earth in a few years.

(A) Besides
(B) If
(C) So
(D) For

15. Pronoun
You must choose the correct pronoun from among other pronouns. Sometimes the pronouns are in short phrases.

EXAMPLE:
Ducks have webbed feet that enable ___________ swim fast, even in strong currents.

(A) they
(B) its
(C) to their
(D) them to
EXERCISES
1. It’s not easy for casual observer to distinguish . genuine paintings and copies.
(A) between
(B) therefore
(C)for
(D)to

2. , all matter is formed of molecules.
(A) It doesn’t matter if the complex
(B) No matter how complex
(C)How complex is not a matter
(D)It’s not a complex matter

3. After World War I, automobiles, buses, trucks became the most common .
(A) of transportation
(B) transport form
(C)forms of transportation
(D)transportation of form

4. Tears anger and tensions naturally.
(A) are relieved
(B) relieving
(C)relieve
(D)what they relieve

5. In a single day are as many as thousands of people involved in business deals in one area.
(A) yet
(B) they
(C)ever
(D) there

6. Paper from cellulose fibers.
(A) is produced
(B) producing
(C)produced
(D)which is produced

7. an insurance agent it is necessary to pass the state examination.
(A) Become
(B) To became
(C)Having become
(D)One becomes

8. There are art galleries in the city of Carmel
(A) a great deal
(B) many
(C)much
(D)lots

9. One difficulty at night is limited vision
(A) to drive
(B) will drive
(C)with driving
(D)be driven

10. the Pulitzer Prize in 1924
(A) Edna Ferber won
(B) When Edna Ferber won
(C)With Edna Ferber’s winning
(D)Edna Ferber’s winning

11. All of the world carry on breeding experiments to increase yield or to improve disease resistance.
(A) countries that grow wheat
(B) growth of wheat countries
(C)wheat–producing countries
(D)countries where wheat is grown

12. Throughout the United States ————fast food restaurants where hamburgers are served.
(A) there are
(B) there is
(C)located
(D)are there

13. The human body contains water , bones, and muscles.
(A) is blood
(B) in its blood
(C)is in its blood
(D)it is in its blood

14. covered by the sea, which occupies 71 percent of the earth.
(A) A huge unknown world is
(B) An huge the unknown world
(C)How huge the unknown world
(D)So huge is the unknown world

15. In his painting “The Three Musicians” Picasso reached a climax in his use ————– geometric forms.
(A) to
(B) of
(C)on
(D)with

READING COMPREHENSION

STRATEGIES FOR THE READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

1. Skim the reading passage to determine the main idea and the overall organization of ideas in the passage. You do not need to understand every detail in each passage to answer the questions correctly. It is therefore a waste of time to read the passage with intent of understanding every single detail before you try to answer the question
2. Look ahead at the questions to determine what types of questions you must answer. Each type of question is answered in a different way.
3. Find the section of the passage that deals with each question. The question-type tells you exactly where to look in the passage to find correct answers.
 For main idea questions, look at the first line of each paragraph.
 For directly and indirectly answered detail questions, choose a key word in the question, and skim for that key word (or a related idea) in order in the passage.
 For vocabulary questions, the question will tell you where the word is located in the passage
 For where questions, the answers are found anywhere in passage.
4. Read the part of the passage that contains the answer carefully. The answer will probably be in the same sentence (or one sentence before or after) the key word or idea
5. Choose the best answer to each question from the four answer choices listed in your test book. You can choose the best answer according to what is given in the appropriate section of the passage, eliminate definitely wrong answers, and mark your best guess on the answer sheet

The following chart outlines the key information that you should remember about main idea question.

MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS
HOW TO IDENTIFY
THEQUESTION  What is the topic of the passage?
 What is the subject of the passage?
 What is the main idea of the passage?
 What is the author’s main point in the passage?
 With what is the author primarily concerned?
 Which of the following would be the best title?
WHERE TO FIND
THE ANSWER The answer to this type of question can generally be determined by looking at the first sentence of each paragraph.
HOW TO ANSWER
THE QUESTION 1. Read the first line of each paragraph.
2. Look for a common theme or idea in the first lines.
3. Pass your eyes quickly over the rest of the passage to check that you really have found the topic sentence(s).
4. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices.

EXERCISES

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2)

Most of the ice on the Earth, close to 90 percent of it, is covering the surface of the continent Antarctica. It does not snow very much in Antarctica, but whatever snow does fall remains and grows deeper and deeper. In some areas of Antarctica, the ice has perhaps been around for as much as a million years and now is more than two miles deep.

1. The main idea of the passage is that
(A) the Earth is a cold planet
(B) most of the Earth’s ice is found in Antarctica
(C) it snows more in Antarctica than in any other place on Earth
(D) Antarctica is only two miles wide but is 90 percent ice 2. The best title for the passage is
(A) Snowfall in Antarctica
(B) The Icy Earth
(C) The Cold, Cold Snow
(D) The Causes of Antarctica’s Ice Pack

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4)

Line
(5) The extremely hot and humid weather that occurs in the United States in July and August is commonly called the “dogs days” of summer. This name comes from the star Sirius, which is known as the Dog Star. Sirius is the brightest visible star, and in the hot summer months it rises in the east at approximately the same time as the Sun. As ancient people saw this star rising with the Sun when the weather was at its hottest, they believed that Sirius was the cause of the additional heat; they believed that this bright star added its heat to the heat of the Sun, and these two together made summer weather so unbearably hot.

3. The topic of this passage is
(A) how dogs like to play during the summer
(B) the causes of hot and humid weather
(C) why the hot summer days are known as the “dogs days”
(D) the days that dogs prefer 4. The main idea of this passage is that
(A) the name for the summer days came from Sirius, the Dog Star
(B) dogs generally prefer hot summer days
(C) the hottest days occur in the summer because of the movements of the Sun and stars
(D) Sirius rises at almost the same time as the Sun during the summer months

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 5-6)

Line
(5)

(10) The term “primitive art” has been used in a variety of ways to describe works and styles of art. One way that this term has been used is to describe the early period within the development of a certain style of art. Another way that this term has been used is to describe artists who have received little professional training and who demonstrate a nontraditional naiveté in their work.
A wonderful example of this second type of primitive artist is Grandma Moses, who spent all her life living on a farm and working at tasks normally associated with farm life.
She did not begin painting until she reached the age of seventy-six, when she switched to painting from embroidery because the arthritis in her hands made embroidery too difficult. Totally without formal education in art, she began creating panoramic images of everyday life on the farm that have achieved international fame

5. The subject of this passage is
(A) an example of one of the types of primitive art
(B) Grandma Moses’s life on the farm
(C) how primitive art differs from formal art
(D) Grandma Moses’s primitive life-style 6. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) Grandma Moses spent her life on a farm
(B) Art critics cannot come to any agreement on a definition of primitive art.
(C) Grandma Moses is one type of primitive artist because of her lack of formal training.
(D) Many artists receive little professional training.

PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 7-9)

(1)

(5) A new hearing device is now available for some hearing-impaired people. This device uses a magnet to hold the detachable sound-processing portion in place. Like other aids, it converts sound into vibrations, but it is unique in that it can transmit the vibrations directly to the magnet, and then to the inner ear, producing a clearer sound. The new device will not help all hearing-impaired people, only those with a hearing loss caused by infection or other problem in the middle ear. It will probably help no more than 20 percent of all people with hearing problems. Those people, however, who often have persistent ear infections should find relief and restored hearing with the new device.

7. What is the author’s main purpose?
(A) to describe a new cure for ear infections
(B) to inform medical personnel of a new device
(C) to urge doctors to use the new device
(D) to explain the use of the magnet

8. It can be inferred from the passage that
(A) this use of magnets is new
(B) infections are in the inner ear
(C) magnets can be dangerous for 80 percent of the people
(D) the new device is smaller than old ones
9. According to the passage, what does the device NOT do?
(A) transmit sound to the inner ear
(B) help all hearing-impaired people
(C) produce clear sound
(D) change sound into vibrations

PASSAGE FIVE (Questions 10-13)

(1)

(5) After two decades of growing student enrollments and economic prosperity, business schools in the Unites States have started to face harder times. Only Harvard’s MBA School showed a substantial increase in enrollment in the 1993 school year. Both Princeton and Stanford have seen decrease in their enrollments. Since 1990, the number of people receiving Masters in Business Administration (MBA) degrees, has dropped about 3 percent to 75,000, and the trend of lower enrollment rates is expected to continue.
There are two factors causing this decrease in students seeking an MBA degree. The first one is that many graduates of four-year colleges are finding that an MBA degree is not a guarantee for a plush job on Wall Street, or in other financial districts of major American cities. Many of the entry-level management jobs are going to students graduating with Master of Arts degrees in English and the humanities as well as those holding MMBA degrees. Students have asked the questions, “Is an MBA degree really what I need to be best prepared for getting a good job?” The second major factor has been the cutting of American payrolls and the lower number of entry-level jobs being offered. Business needs are changing, and MBA schools are struggling to meet the new demands.

10. What is the main focus of this passage?
(A) Jobs on Wall Street
(B) Types of graduate degrees
(C) Changes in enrollment for MBA schools
(D) How schools are changing to reflect the economy

11. Which of the following university’s business schools has not shown a decrease in enrollment?
(A) Princeton
(B) Harvard
(C) Stanford
(D) Yale
12. Which of the following descriptions most likely applies to Wall Street?
(A) A center for international affairs
(B) A major financial center
(C) A shopping district
(D) A neighborhood in New York

13. According to the passage, what are two causes of declining business school enrollments?
(A) Lack of necessity for an MBA and an economic recession
(B) Low salary and foreign competition
(C) Fewer MBA schools and fewer entry-level jobs
(D) Declining population and economic prosperity

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