STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION
You must choose the word or phrase that correctly completes the sentence.
1. Subject or Noun Phrase
A single subject or a short noun phrase is the testing point in this category. The noun might be the main subject of the sentence, a part of a clause, or an appositive (a phrase that names the noun in another way). This category also includes the words it and there when they are nonreferential subjects.)
__________new diseases has engaged many researchers since the last decade.
(A) By studying
(B) The study of
(C) An important study
(D) Now that the study
2. Word Order
In this category the answer choices contain all or almost all of the right words, but three of the answers give the words in the wrong order.
Hot springs are formed when water that has passed near recently formed hot igneous rocks emerges ___________
(A) not far below the surface
(B) the surface not far below
(C) below the not far surface
(D) not far the surface below
3. Subject + Verb
Both the subject and the verb are in the answer choices. The subject and verb might be the main subject and verb of the sentence, or they might be in a subordinate clause. Sometimes the verb and subject are reversed for emphasis. (See lesson 15 for examples of this.)
In 1750 B.C. ___________the most famous collection of early laws.
(A) then Hammurabi wrote
(B) Hammurabi wrote
(C) Hammurabi’s wrote
(D) Hammurabi, who wrote
4. Verb or Verb Phrase
The focus is on the verb. The specific testing point might be verb tense, verb agreement, or passive voice. You often have to decide whether the sentence needs a single verb or part of a clause.
In 1776, when the Declaration of Independence _________, the United States became a new country.
(B) that signed
(C) was signed
(D) that is signed
5. Adjective/Adjective Phrase/Adjective Clause
The answer is either a single adjective or an adjective that is part of a clause or phrase. This category includes relative pronouns, relative clauses, and adjective participles. The answer often answers the question what kind of?
Like many other men ___________ president, Benjamin Horrison was first a practicing lawyer.
(A) who they run for
(B) they run for
(C) who have run for
(D) run for
This category includes conjunctions such as and, both, either, or, neither, nor, but, and for. It also includes other connective words, such as because, in order to, so that, and however.
______________nor animals can survive without oxygen.
(A) Plants can neither
(B) Neither can plants
(C) Plants, neither
(D) Neither plants
7. Parallel Construction
Words are given in a series. They must all be the same part of speech. Often, a comma separates the words or phrases.
Sleeping, resting, __________ are the best ways to care for a cold.
(A) and that drinking fluids
(B) and drinking fluids
(C) which drank fluids
(D) and one drinks fluids
8. Adverb/Adverbial Phrase/Adverbial Clause
The answer is either a single adverb or an adverb that is part of a phrase or clause. This category also includes relative adverbs and adverbial participles. The words often answer the question how, when, where, or why.
A ray swims rapidly ___________broad wing like appendages.
(A) by flapping its
(B) its flapping
(C) of the flapping
(D) the flap
____________very hungry, he bought a hamburger.
(C) He felt
(D) To feel
The greater ______________increase in population, the harder it is for people to find adequate housing.
(B) is the
(D) is of the
The main testing point is between an infinitive (a verb phrase beginning with the word to) and a gerund (a verb used as a noun, ending in –ing)
Impressionist artists tended ___________ imagination and light more important than faithful reproduction of objects.
(B) be consider
(C) consider to
(D) to consider
11. Preposition/Prepositional Phrase
The answer is either a single preposition or a preposition in a phrase. You must choose the correct form of the preposition or the correct form of the noun following the preposition.
Excessive absenteeism results ___________problems for the schools.
Of all the national parks in the United States, Yellowstone is _________visited.
(A) one of the most
(C) one most
(D) the most one
13. Negative Words
The main testing point is often the difference among no, not, none, nothing, or nobody.
____________two fingerprints are identical.
The conditional might begin with the word if or a phrase like ………had it not been for.
_________the ozone layer were destroyed, most living things would disappear from the Earth in a few years.
You must choose the correct pronoun from among other pronouns. Sometimes the pronouns are in short phrases.
Ducks have webbed feet that enable ___________ swim fast, even in strong currents.
(C) to their
(D) them to
1. It’s not easy for casual observer to distinguish . genuine paintings and copies.
2. , all matter is formed of molecules.
(A) It doesn’t matter if the complex
(B) No matter how complex
(C)How complex is not a matter
(D)It’s not a complex matter
3. After World War I, automobiles, buses, trucks became the most common .
(A) of transportation
(B) transport form
(C)forms of transportation
(D)transportation of form
4. Tears anger and tensions naturally.
(A) are relieved
(D)what they relieve
5. In a single day are as many as thousands of people involved in business deals in one area.
6. Paper from cellulose fibers.
(A) is produced
(D)which is produced
7. an insurance agent it is necessary to pass the state examination.
(B) To became
8. There are art galleries in the city of Carmel
(A) a great deal
9. One difficulty at night is limited vision
(A) to drive
(B) will drive
10. the Pulitzer Prize in 1924
(A) Edna Ferber won
(B) When Edna Ferber won
(C)With Edna Ferber’s winning
(D)Edna Ferber’s winning
11. All of the world carry on breeding experiments to increase yield or to improve disease resistance.
(A) countries that grow wheat
(B) growth of wheat countries
(D)countries where wheat is grown
12. Throughout the United States ————fast food restaurants where hamburgers are served.
(A) there are
(B) there is
13. The human body contains water , bones, and muscles.
(A) is blood
(B) in its blood
(C)is in its blood
(D)it is in its blood
14. covered by the sea, which occupies 71 percent of the earth.
(A) A huge unknown world is
(B) An huge the unknown world
(C)How huge the unknown world
(D)So huge is the unknown world
15. In his painting “The Three Musicians” Picasso reached a climax in his use ————– geometric forms.
STRATEGIES FOR THE READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. Skim the reading passage to determine the main idea and the overall organization of ideas in the passage. You do not need to understand every detail in each passage to answer the questions correctly. It is therefore a waste of time to read the passage with intent of understanding every single detail before you try to answer the question
2. Look ahead at the questions to determine what types of questions you must answer. Each type of question is answered in a different way.
3. Find the section of the passage that deals with each question. The question-type tells you exactly where to look in the passage to find correct answers.
For main idea questions, look at the first line of each paragraph.
For directly and indirectly answered detail questions, choose a key word in the question, and skim for that key word (or a related idea) in order in the passage.
For vocabulary questions, the question will tell you where the word is located in the passage
For where questions, the answers are found anywhere in passage.
4. Read the part of the passage that contains the answer carefully. The answer will probably be in the same sentence (or one sentence before or after) the key word or idea
5. Choose the best answer to each question from the four answer choices listed in your test book. You can choose the best answer according to what is given in the appropriate section of the passage, eliminate definitely wrong answers, and mark your best guess on the answer sheet
The following chart outlines the key information that you should remember about main idea question.
MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS
HOW TO IDENTIFY
THEQUESTION What is the topic of the passage?
What is the subject of the passage?
What is the main idea of the passage?
What is the author’s main point in the passage?
With what is the author primarily concerned?
Which of the following would be the best title?
WHERE TO FIND
THE ANSWER The answer to this type of question can generally be determined by looking at the first sentence of each paragraph.
HOW TO ANSWER
THE QUESTION 1. Read the first line of each paragraph.
2. Look for a common theme or idea in the first lines.
3. Pass your eyes quickly over the rest of the passage to check that you really have found the topic sentence(s).
4. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices.
PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2)
Most of the ice on the Earth, close to 90 percent of it, is covering the surface of the continent Antarctica. It does not snow very much in Antarctica, but whatever snow does fall remains and grows deeper and deeper. In some areas of Antarctica, the ice has perhaps been around for as much as a million years and now is more than two miles deep.
1. The main idea of the passage is that
(A) the Earth is a cold planet
(B) most of the Earth’s ice is found in Antarctica
(C) it snows more in Antarctica than in any other place on Earth
(D) Antarctica is only two miles wide but is 90 percent ice 2. The best title for the passage is
(A) Snowfall in Antarctica
(B) The Icy Earth
(C) The Cold, Cold Snow
(D) The Causes of Antarctica’s Ice Pack
PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4)
(5) The extremely hot and humid weather that occurs in the United States in July and August is commonly called the “dogs days” of summer. This name comes from the star Sirius, which is known as the Dog Star. Sirius is the brightest visible star, and in the hot summer months it rises in the east at approximately the same time as the Sun. As ancient people saw this star rising with the Sun when the weather was at its hottest, they believed that Sirius was the cause of the additional heat; they believed that this bright star added its heat to the heat of the Sun, and these two together made summer weather so unbearably hot.
3. The topic of this passage is
(A) how dogs like to play during the summer
(B) the causes of hot and humid weather
(C) why the hot summer days are known as the “dogs days”
(D) the days that dogs prefer 4. The main idea of this passage is that
(A) the name for the summer days came from Sirius, the Dog Star
(B) dogs generally prefer hot summer days
(C) the hottest days occur in the summer because of the movements of the Sun and stars
(D) Sirius rises at almost the same time as the Sun during the summer months
PASSAGE THREE (Questions 5-6)
(10) The term “primitive art” has been used in a variety of ways to describe works and styles of art. One way that this term has been used is to describe the early period within the development of a certain style of art. Another way that this term has been used is to describe artists who have received little professional training and who demonstrate a nontraditional naiveté in their work.
A wonderful example of this second type of primitive artist is Grandma Moses, who spent all her life living on a farm and working at tasks normally associated with farm life.
She did not begin painting until she reached the age of seventy-six, when she switched to painting from embroidery because the arthritis in her hands made embroidery too difficult. Totally without formal education in art, she began creating panoramic images of everyday life on the farm that have achieved international fame
5. The subject of this passage is
(A) an example of one of the types of primitive art
(B) Grandma Moses’s life on the farm
(C) how primitive art differs from formal art
(D) Grandma Moses’s primitive life-style 6. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) Grandma Moses spent her life on a farm
(B) Art critics cannot come to any agreement on a definition of primitive art.
(C) Grandma Moses is one type of primitive artist because of her lack of formal training.
(D) Many artists receive little professional training.
PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 7-9)
(5) A new hearing device is now available for some hearing-impaired people. This device uses a magnet to hold the detachable sound-processing portion in place. Like other aids, it converts sound into vibrations, but it is unique in that it can transmit the vibrations directly to the magnet, and then to the inner ear, producing a clearer sound. The new device will not help all hearing-impaired people, only those with a hearing loss caused by infection or other problem in the middle ear. It will probably help no more than 20 percent of all people with hearing problems. Those people, however, who often have persistent ear infections should find relief and restored hearing with the new device.
7. What is the author’s main purpose?
(A) to describe a new cure for ear infections
(B) to inform medical personnel of a new device
(C) to urge doctors to use the new device
(D) to explain the use of the magnet
8. It can be inferred from the passage that
(A) this use of magnets is new
(B) infections are in the inner ear
(C) magnets can be dangerous for 80 percent of the people
(D) the new device is smaller than old ones
9. According to the passage, what does the device NOT do?
(A) transmit sound to the inner ear
(B) help all hearing-impaired people
(C) produce clear sound
(D) change sound into vibrations
PASSAGE FIVE (Questions 10-13)
(5) After two decades of growing student enrollments and economic prosperity, business schools in the Unites States have started to face harder times. Only Harvard’s MBA School showed a substantial increase in enrollment in the 1993 school year. Both Princeton and Stanford have seen decrease in their enrollments. Since 1990, the number of people receiving Masters in Business Administration (MBA) degrees, has dropped about 3 percent to 75,000, and the trend of lower enrollment rates is expected to continue.
There are two factors causing this decrease in students seeking an MBA degree. The first one is that many graduates of four-year colleges are finding that an MBA degree is not a guarantee for a plush job on Wall Street, or in other financial districts of major American cities. Many of the entry-level management jobs are going to students graduating with Master of Arts degrees in English and the humanities as well as those holding MMBA degrees. Students have asked the questions, “Is an MBA degree really what I need to be best prepared for getting a good job?” The second major factor has been the cutting of American payrolls and the lower number of entry-level jobs being offered. Business needs are changing, and MBA schools are struggling to meet the new demands.
10. What is the main focus of this passage?
(A) Jobs on Wall Street
(B) Types of graduate degrees
(C) Changes in enrollment for MBA schools
(D) How schools are changing to reflect the economy
11. Which of the following university’s business schools has not shown a decrease in enrollment?
12. Which of the following descriptions most likely applies to Wall Street?
(A) A center for international affairs
(B) A major financial center
(C) A shopping district
(D) A neighborhood in New York
13. According to the passage, what are two causes of declining business school enrollments?
(A) Lack of necessity for an MBA and an economic recession
(B) Low salary and foreign competition
(C) Fewer MBA schools and fewer entry-level jobs
(D) Declining population and economic prosperity